Project Scope Management includes the process required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primary concerned with defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project. Project scope management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
Product Scope Vs. Project Scope
Product scope: The features and functions that characterize the product, service or result.
Project scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service or result with specified features and functions.
Project scope management includes the following:
1.1 Plan Scope Management
The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlled.It provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed.
Project scope management plan ensures that it includes only the work required to complete the project successfully. It defines the activities and processes which needed to be delivered as per the project scope and it should be assesses against the project scope baseline.
Project scope management plan prevent the scope creep and gold plating.
Scope creep – Additional requirement added without any proper control
Gold plating – Additional requirements initiated by team to exceed expectation
Project Scope Management plan – Inputs, T&T and Outputs
Project Scope Management Data Flow
1.2 Collect requirements
The process of determining, documenting and managing stakeholder needs to meet project objectives. The key benefit is to provide the basis of defining and managing project scope. Collect requirement documentation is the touchstone from which the schedule, budget, quality specification, resource planning and risks emanate from.
Collect requirements – Inputs, T&T and Outputs
Tools and Techniques
Affinity diagram – In this technique, a large number of ideas are classified into different groups by using some criteria. This facilitates an effective and efficient review and analysis.
Brainstorming – This is a technique used in a group environment to gather ideas to a problem /issue without immediate evaluation of these ideas. The evaluation and analysis of these ideas happens later. This is one of the most widely used techniques where you let everyone come up with creative ideas and then analyze them to choose the best one.
There are two specific kinds of brainstorming,
Nominal group technique
Delphi technique - This refers to an information-gathering technique used for experts to reach a consensus while sharing their ideas and preferences anonymously.
Group decision-making techniques -Group decision making is a process used to collectively assess and evaluate multiple alternatives in terms of expected outcomes.
Methods of group technique
Dictatorship – One person has the authority to make the decision.
Unanimity - This is opposite of dictatorship. A decision is accepted only if everyone agrees.
Majority - A decision must be supported by more than 50 percent of the members of the group.
Plurality - The alternative supported by largest number of members wins even if this number does not make a majority. This situation arises when there are more than two alternatives.
1.3 Define Scope
The process of developing a detailed description of the project and the product
Define scope Data flow
1.4 Create WBS
As soon as the project is defined and the requirements are documented, then creating the WBS is the next step.
PMBOK calls the WBS the ‘hub of information’ for project and should be seen as the cornerstone component of the project plan, as it is used to identify the activities, costs, quality attributes, risks and procurement aspects within the plan.
- Subdividing the project deliverable and project work into smaller and more manageable component
- The work breakdown structure is a deliverable – oriented hierarchical decomposition of project work
WBS consists of a graphical, hierarchical chart that is logically organized from the top to down. Each node on such a diagram, could be considered as a work package, and consists of a unique alphanumeric (or just numeric) code to uniquely locate and identify it.
WBS is created via decomposition, which consists of breaking down the project deliverable into progressively smaller and hence lower nodes on the WBS.
One of the most important Work Breakdown Structure design principles is called the 100% Rule. This Rule states that the WBS includes 100% of the work defined by the project scope and captures all deliverable – internal, external, interim – in terms of the work to be completed, including project management
To create an accurate and complete WBS, it is important to ensure that each node is mutually exclusive with no gaps or overlap in each of the work package.
Inputs, Tools & Technique and Outputs
Control Accounts, Work Packages and activities
1.5 Verify Scope
The verify scope process belongs to the project scope management knowledge area, and is performed during the monitoring and controlling phase of the project.
The verify scope process is performed with the customer at the end of the project to verify that the product is complete, all requirements are met, and that the product is ready to be accepted by the customer
It is important to understand the difference between validation and verification.
Verification means that the product complies with the requirements is a process to obtain customer acceptance whereas Validation means the product meets the needs of the customer.
There is lot of confusion between verify scope and quality control process. Both the process plays an important role in monitoring and controlling process group. As both the process involve some inspection, many people think that they are similar, but they are not same.
Perform quality control belongs to project quality management knowledge area and is performed throughout the monitoring and controlling phase.
Quality controls activities are performed internally by team members and during the project execution whereas verify scope process is performed by the customer and at the end of the project or end of the phase.
We should perform the scope verification process even if the project is terminated or ended before completion.
The project scope statement includes the list of deliverables, the project scope and the project acceptance criteria. WBS defines the decomposition of each deliverable into work package.
Verify scope Inputs, T&T and output
Verify scope Data flow